QUELS SONT LES ANTIOXYDANTS DANS LES ALIMENTS

2023-05-25


What are food antioxidants?

Food antioxidants are food additives that can prevent or delay the oxidative deterioration of food, improve food stability and prolong storage period. Oxidation will not only deteriorate the oils and fats in the food, but also cause the food to fade, discolor and destroy vitamins, etc., thereby reducing the sensory quality and nutritional value of the food, and even producing harmful substances, causing food poisoning.

  Antioxidants are classified into two categories according to their sources: natural antioxidants and synthetic antioxidants. It can also be divided into two categories according to solubility: ① Oil-soluble antioxidants, commonly used synthetic oil-soluble antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), dibutylhydroxytoluene (BHT) and propyl gallate (PG) Oxidants; natural oil-soluble antioxidants such as mixed tocopherol concentrate and guaiac resin.

 ②Water-soluble antioxidants, including ascorbic acid and its sodium salt, erythorbic acid and its sodium salt and other synthetic products, natural product phytic acid extracted from rice bran and bran, namely phytic acid. The role of food antioxidants is more complex. Ascorbic acid, erythorbic acid and their sodium salts protect food from oxidation because they are easily oxidized. Phenolic antioxidants such as BHA and BHT may combine with the peroxides produced by the oxidation of oils, interrupting the auto-oxidative reaction chain and preventing oxidation.

 Other antioxidants may inhibit or destroy the activity of oxidase, thereby preventing the oxidation reaction. Food antioxidants are usually used for antioxidants in oily and oily foods, such as fried instant noodles and other fried foods. Because its function is to prevent or delay the time of oxidative deterioration of food, but cannot change the result of oxidation, it must be added before the oxidation of oil. While using phenolic antioxidants, adding some acidic substances such as citric acid and phosphoric acid can significantly improve the antioxidant effect.

 These acidic substances are called synergists. They are generally believed to act as antioxidant synergists by chelating with trace metal ions that promote oxidation. Due to the high toxicity of synthetic antioxidants such as BHA and BHT, much attention has been paid to the research and development of natural antioxidants at home and abroad. In addition to studying the extraction of phytic acid for application, vigorous research is being done to extract rice bran, sesamol and other antioxidant substances from rice bran oil and sesame residue.

 In addition, amino acids, peptides, spices, melanoidins and various complex antioxidants were also studied. Among the synthetic antioxidants, ascorbic acid and its sodium salt are safe and harmless and have significant effects. Although erythorbic acid and its sodium salt have no nutritional effect, their antioxidant effect is the same as that of ascorbic acid and its sodium salt, and the price is lower, which is conducive to further development and application.

Types of Antioxidants in Food Additives?

Food resistance agents can be divided into two categories according to their sources

(1) The main synthetic agents

are: tert-butyl hydroxyanisole (BHA), dibutyl hydroxytoluene (BHT), tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), propyl gallate (PG), ascorbyl palmitate (AP), dilaurate thiodipropionate (DLTP), 4-hexylresorcinol (4-HR).

(2) The main natural antioxidants

are: tocopherol (vitamin E), L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C), D-sodium erythorbate (isovitamin C sodium), tea polyphenols (TP), rosemary extract , phytic acid (phytic acid), ginger extract.

For specific antioxidants and their dosages allowed in each type of food in my country, you can refer to the latest national standard for food additives GB2760-2011.

What are the types of food antioxidants?

1. Antioxidants in traditional food At present, the commonly used antioxidants in food are: 2,6-di-tert-butyl cresol, which is mainly used for edible oils and dried fish products; tert-butyl-p-hydroxyanisole, which is mainly used for edible oils and fats; Propyl acid, mainly used in fried food, instant noodles and canned food; vE, mainly used in baby food, milk powder; vc and isovc, mainly used in fish products, frozen food, etc.

  In addition to the above products, the US FDA also approved the use of ascorbyl palmitate, calcium ascorbate, lauryl thiodipropionate, ethoxyquin, lecithin, metasulfite, ascorbyl stearate, sodium metasulfite, sodium sulfite, chlorine Stannous, amyl gallate, etc. as antioxidants. The antioxidants added to the food must be used in the appropriate amount. For example, when the dosage of tert-butyl-p-hydroxyanisole (BHA) is 0.02%, the antioxidant effect can be increased by 10% compared with the dosage of 0.01%. However, if the dosage exceeds 0.02%, the effect will decrease.

 In addition, two or more antioxidants are used in combination, and the effect is better. For example, when citric acid and 2,6-di-tert-butylcresol (BHT) are added to refined oil together, the storage time can be nearly doubled compared with the addition of BHT alone. Natural VE: abundantly present in vegetable oils and fats, and the state of existence is usually relatively stable. In the oil refining process, a large amount of refined vE mixture can be collected.

 The component has good anti-oxidation and is safe to use, and has been widely used in food preservation. Melanoidins are the heating products of amino compounds and carbonyl compounds, and their antioxidant capacity is equivalent to that of BHA and BHT. Red pepper extract: Red pepper contains a lot of antioxidants, which is a mixture of vE and vanillamide. If the spicy taste can be removed, it is an excellent antioxidant.

  Spice Extracts: As early as the 1930s, research on the antioxidant effects of spices began. By the 1950s, researchers analyzed 32 spices and found that rosemary and sage had the best antioxidant properties. These products mostly contain flavonoids, terpenoids, organic acids and other antioxidant components, which can cut the auto-oxidative chain of oil, chelate metal ions, and play a synergistic effect with organic acids.

 France extracted two crystalline antioxidant substances, carnosol and rosemary phenol, from rosemary dry leaf powder, which are more than 4 times stronger than the synthetic oxidants BHT and BHA. 2. New food antioxidants Tea polyphenols are antioxidant substances extracted from tea leaves, containing 4 components: epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin gallate and catechin tea.

 Its antioxidant capacity is several times stronger than vE, Vc, BHT, and BHA, so Japan has begun the commercial production of tea polyphenol antioxidants. Now food antioxidants have found the strongest antioxidant in the natural world, astaxanthin (Astaxanthin in English, ASTA for short), which has been widely used in milk, baked goods, high-end beverages and other fields in Japan, the United States, Europe, and Southeast Asia.

What else are food-grade antioxidants besides citric acid?

1. Oil-soluble antioxidants, commonly used synthetic oil-soluble antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), dibutylhydroxytoluene (BHT) and propyl gallate (PG); mixed tocopherol concentrates and Natural oil-soluble antioxidants such as guaiac. 2. Water-soluble antioxidants, including synthetic products such as ascorbic acid and its sodium salt, erythorbic acid and its sodium salt, and natural phytic acid, phytic acid, extracted from rice bran and bran.

What are the typical cases of the harm of food antioxidants?

Experts have been questioning the addition of antibiotics to the diet for several years, until studies have linked these substances to the development of some cancers, including those of the front row. The growth hormone that many athletes and actors take has yet to show its anti-aging effects, but its side effects such as diabetes, high blood pressure and cancer are obvious. In addition, so-called "anti-aging medicine" has also been widely criticized by researchers who believe that these anti-aging treatments have no scientific basis.

What happens if you eat foods that contain antioxidants?

What is an Antioxidant Oxygen is the basis of all animal and plant life. It is our most important nutrient and every cell needs oxygen every moment. Without oxygen, we cannot release energy from food and drive all the reactions in our body. But oxygen's chemical properties are both reactive and dangerous: In normal biochemical reactions, oxygen becomes unstable and can "oxidize" neighboring molecules.

 This can cause cell damage that can lead to cancer, inflammation, arterial damage, and aging. Such substances, known as free oxygen radicals, are equivalent to the human body's nuclear waste and must be eliminated to eliminate the danger. Free radicals can be produced in all oxidative processes, including smoking, combustion of gasoline to produce exhaust gases, radiation, frying and grilling food, and normal physiological processes.

 Chemicals that neutralize free radicals are called "antioxidants," and some of them are essential nutrients, such as vitamin A and beta-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E. Others, such as bioflavonoids, anthocyanins, and hundreds of other protective substances recently found in common foods, are not antioxidants. The balance between the body's intake of antioxidants and exposure to free radicals is like the balance between life and death.

 We can shift this balance in our life's favor by simply changing our diet and antioxidant supplementation. Numerous clinical studies have confirmed that some antioxidants not only slow or soothe DNA damage, but also enhance the body's ability to repair damaged DNA. Here are some common and effective antioxidants: ☆Vitamin C and E Vitamin C&E ☆Phytonutrients from green tea - Phytocatechinnutrients from green tea-Catechins ☆ Beta-carotene Beta-carotene ☆ Phytonutrients extracted from grape seeds - Grape seeds extract ☆ Lycopene ☆ Alpha-lipoic acid Alpha-lipoic acid and above are natural antioxidants , Harmless to the human body, if the antioxidants in the synthetic food additives are harmful to the human body: food additives are divided into: preservatives, antioxidants, coloring agents, bleaching agents, flavoring agents, coagulants, loose Agents, thickeners, defoaming agents, sweeteners, colorants, emulsifiers, quality improvers, antagonists, flavor enhancers, preservatives, enzymes, coating agents, flavors, nutritional fortifiers and others.

  The varieties of antioxidants allowed to be used in my country include BHA, BHT, propyl gallate, sodium isosorbate, and vitamin polyphenols. Antioxidants are mainly used to prevent oil oxidation. For example, vegetable oil in a large barrel, once it is processed into food, its area exposed to oxygen in the air increases sharply, and it is easy to be worn out; fat oxidation is also the focus of research on etiology such as atherosclerosis, so antioxidants are high in oil and fat. commonly used food additives.

 Soybean oil produced by machine pressing method also has a strong antioxidant effect because it is rich in natural antioxidant vitamin E. Since food additives are not natural ingredients of food after all, a small amount of long-term intake may also have potential harm to the body. With the development of food toxicology methods, food additives that were originally thought to be harmless have been found to have chronic toxicity and teratogenic, mutagenic and carcinogenic hazards in recent years.

What is commonly used in packaged food as an antioxidant in food

Food chemicals can be divided into categories based on their sources:

(1) Synthetic antioxidants The

main tertiary butyl hydroxyanisole (BHA), dibutyl hydroxytoluene (BHT), tertiary butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), Propyl gallate (PG), ascorbyl palmitate (AP), dilaurate thiodipropionate (DLTP), 4-hexylresorcinol (4-HR).

(2) Natural antioxidants The

main ones are: tocopherol (vitamin E), L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C), D-sodium erythorbate (isovitamin C sodium), tea polyphenols (TP), rosemary extract , phytic acid (phytic acid), ginger extract.

What are the antioxidant food additives?

Several commonly used fat-soluble antioxidants (1) BHA: butylated hydroxyanisole. It is one of the widely used antioxidants in the world and one of the commonly used antioxidants in my country because of its good retention after heating and effective in preserving food. It has a synergistic effect with other antioxidants, and when used with synergists such as citric acid, its antioxidant effect is more significant. BHA is generally considered to be less toxic and relatively safe. (2) BHT: dibutylhydroxytoluene. Compared with other antioxidants, it has high stability and good heat resistance, has little effect at ordinary cooking temperatures, and has good antioxidant effects. It is very effective for long-term preservation of food and baked goods. It is a cheap antioxidant widely used in the world, especially in aquatic products processing. It is generally used in combination with BHA, and citric acid or other organic acids are used as synergists. Relative to BHA, the toxicity is slightly higher. (3) PG: propyl gallate. Relatively stable to heat. The antioxidant effect of PG on lard is stronger than that of BHA and BHT. Low toxicity. (4) TBHQ: tert-butyl hydroquinone. It is a relatively new class of phenolic antioxidants, and its antioxidant effect is better.

What are antioxidant foods?

Vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and the trace elements selenium and zinc are all antioxidants.


Most of these ingredients are found in the following foods:


Vitamin A - yellow fruits such as oranges; vegetables such as carrots and pumpkins; fish, etc.


Vitamin C - Fruits (especially citrus fruits); leafy greens such as broccoli, cauliflower, etc.; berries such as strawberries, blueberries, raspberries, etc.; and potatoes and sweet potatoes.


Vitamin E - Nuts, seeds, avocados, vegetable oils, fish oils, etc.


Selenium - Brazil nuts, tuna, cabbage, etc.


Zinc - pumpkin, sunflower seeds, fish, almonds, etc.


One of the most important roles of vegetables and fruits is to provide our body with antioxidants.


Best Natural Antioxidant Sources


Often you can tell how much oxidant a fruit or vegetable has by its color. The more color you get, the more useful vitamins you eat. Berry leaders all talk about antioxidants - blackberries, raspberries, strawberries, cranberries And blueberries are high in flavonoids. The destruction of flavonoid free radicals successfully disrupts the health effects you can do including peroxy radicals, superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, and singlet oxygen.


Healthy food doesn't have to be bland; you can get delicious from desert berries. Unsweetened berries have decreased antioxidant properties. But, adding milk, cream, or other dairy products does. Milk can significantly reduce natural antioxidants. So keep in mind when preparing deserts.


Oranges, citrus fruits, and other popular sources are antioxidant vitamins. If you prefer to drink juice instead of citrus, opt for a fresh juice squeeze.


Where to Find Natural Antioxidants


Not all antioxidants in fruits and vegetables. Green tea is a great flavonoid. So if you are a tea lover, choose the green variety.


Coffee is an unusual source of antioxidants. Not only does it help you wake up in the cold and slow in the morning, but it provides you with antioxidants in your body. According to a study by University of Scranton researchers, coffee is an American antioxidant The main source of decaf coffee is as good as regular coffee, but you should remember - dairy free.


Dark chocolate contains antioxidants. So, you see, sometimes we all love food that can give your health a huge benefit anyway.


Include antioxidants in your diet


Teach you to eat fruit as a snack, not a regular junk snack. Good news naturally is the leader in dried fruit oxidizers, dates and prunes. But of course, if you are watching you have to be careful about your weight because all dried fruit is high in sugar etc. .


Side dishes like coriander, coriander and dill are good sources of antioxidants. Plus they are good for your meals. Spices are also the most advanced antioxidants, not only giving you a rich flavor of food, but also supplying vitamins.


Frying is a favorite cooking method that preserves the antioxidants in vegetables. Vitamins are most easily destroyed by heat, so the more expensive you cook, the more you have.


Anti-work into your daily routine is not as difficult as you think. A cup of black coffee in the morning with some fruit and snacks, then lunch and dinner with a berry desert and you are heaven. The key here is to do it on a regular basis.

Types of Antioxidants in Food Additives?

Food antioxidants can be divided into two categories according to their sources: (1) The main synthetic antioxidants are: tert-butyl hydroxyanisole (BHA), dibutyl hydroxytoluene (BHT), tert-butyl terephthalate Phenol (TBHQ), propyl gallate (PG), ascorbyl palmitate (AP), dilaurate thiodipropionate (DLTP), 4-hexylresorcinol (4-HR). (2) The main natural antioxidants are: tocopherol (vitamin E), L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C), D-sodium erythorbate (isovitamin C sodium), tea polyphenols (TP), rosemary extract , phytic acid (phytic acid), ginger extract. For specific antioxidants and their dosages allowed in each type of food in my country, you can refer to the latest national standard for food additives GB2760-2011.

What can be used as food antioxidants?

Antioxidant: It is a substance with poor gas barrier. It is a class of substances that help capture and neutralize free radicals, thereby eliminating the damage caused by free radicals to the human body. Such as vitamin A, C, E, selenium, zinc, copper and manganese classification: 1. Free radical absorbers: such as phenolic antioxidants, vitamin E.

2. Oxygen scavengers: such as ascorbic acid, ascorbyl palmitate, erythorbic acid and sodium erythorbate, etc.

3. Metal ion chelators: citric acid, EDTA and phosphoric acid derivatives.

Antioxidants in food can prevent the oxidation reaction of various food ingredients. Food oxidation can lead to undesirable browning and changes in taste. Antioxidants react with oxygen, thus counteracting negative effects. For example: Vitamin C (E300) and Vitamin E (E308). Antioxidants in the human body protect major cellular substances by neutralizing the adverse effects of "free radicals" (natural by-products of cellular metabolism). Free radicals are formed when oxygen is metabolized or burned by the body. They are transported through the cell, disrupting other molecular structures, causing damage to the cell. Such cellular damage is thought to be the cause of aging and various health problems. Antioxidants that are active in the body are vitamins A, C, E and polyphenols (phytochemicals, found in tea and fruit). Vitamins C, E and beta-carotene (precursor to vitamin A) and the mineral selenium have antioxidant properties. That is, they protect delicate proteins and lipids in cell membranes and play an important role in blocking highly reactive oxygen atoms (free radicals). Free radicals are molecules with one or more unpaired electrons. Antioxidants can scavenge these free radicals, react quickly with other molecules, and the initiating chain reaction is called oxidation. Free radicals are a regular product of metabolic processes, and the body produces its own antioxidants to maintain balance. However, stress, aging and environmental conditions like air pollution and smoking can increase the amount of free radicals in the body, which can disrupt the balance. Extremely unstable free radicals can damage healthy DNA and are associated with some of the changes that accompany aging (such as the progression of age spots, a leading cause of blindness in the elderly), as well as leading to a range of diseases such as cancer, heart disease and stroke . Research shows the protective effects of natural antioxidants in fruits and vegetables. For example, vitamin E and beta-carotene can protect cell membranes; vitamin C can expel free radicals from cells.

Animal Nutrition: Antioxidants

are additives incorporated into feeds to prevent certain active ingredients in the feed from being oxidatively deteriorated.


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